Understanding the organizational, legal, and cultural differ
Understanding the organizational, legal, and cultural differences between managing in the public sector versus the private sector is vital to organizational success. Public managers face unique challenges (both ideological and practical), which is why an understanding of the dynamic interaction of theory and practice is important. In addition, public managers need to understand the enduring issues and evolving tools required in public service. For the final project, you will write a white paper focusing on an organizational, a legal, or a cultural challenge in the field of public administration. Early in the course, you will select an issue that is of interest to you. Your chosen challenge will act as the lens through which you will examine the impacts of various theories on the practice of public administration. You will also assess the role of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches in developing public policy, and you will evaluate budgeting techniques and communication strategies for their effectiveness. The project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Five, and Eight. The final project will be submitted in Module Ten. This assessment addresses the following course outcomes: ï‚· Contrast the views of early public administration theorists for determining their impact on the public administration profession ï‚· Assess the impact of professional management on the effectiveness of governmental operations at the federal, state, and local levels ï‚· Analyze essential organizational, cultural, and legal differences between public administration and private sector management for determining their impact on governmental operations ï‚· Differentiate among the roles of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches in establishing and implementing public policy at the federal and state governmental levels ï‚· Evaluate public budgeting techniques for their effect on governmental organizations and stakeholders ï‚· Assess real-world communication strategies employed by governmental institutions for their effectiveness in enhancing public outreach and developing a sense of community Your final project should focus on an organizational, a legal, or a cultural challenge facing public administrators that is of interest to you. Using this challenge as your lens, write a white paper discussing the impact different theories have had on the practice of public administration and examining the unique challenges facing managers in the public sector. Remember that the focus of your paper is the public administration challenge that you selected. You may select one of these challenges to public administration, or you may choose another, with instructor approval: ï‚· Discuss the emergence of the â€œgovernance without governmentâ€ concept, which focuses on the importance of networks, nontraditional partnerships, and the markets to guide society, rather than traditional bureaucratic institutions. This movement has taken hold in Europe and is gaining momentum in the United States. ï‚· How is the new public administration movement impacting the â€œaccountability versus efficiencyâ€ paradigm that has defined the profession since its inception? ï‚· How is the reintroduction of privatization impacting public policy decision making and the targeted social outcomes? For example, imagine a state determines that access to high-speed internet for every home is essential for long-term public health, yet in areas of the state, the market has determined that it is not profitable to provide the service. Should the state form a partnership with a private sector business (i.e., subsidize) to ensure that their social goal is obtained? ï‚· What are effective performance measures to evaluate programs and management in the public sector? Traditionally, the focus has been on measuring inputs and activities. Is this focus still effective? ï‚· How can flexibility and creativity be integrated into the structures of public organizations in a way that allows for nimble, street-level decision making to swiftly adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions while maintaining some level of accountability to the citizens? Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Introduction Concisely describe your chosen organizational, legal, or cultural challenge in the field of public administration. II. Theoretical Overview: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. A. Public Administration Advocates: Describe the original advocates for the development of professional public management within the federal government of the United States. In your description, consider questions such as these: What were their viewpoints? How did they advocate for the development of public administration? B. Impact on Public Administration: Differentiate between the views of Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon. How did each impact the development of the public administration profession? C. Public Administration Dichotomy: Analyze the founding dichotomy of public administration as expressed by Dwight Waldo for its impact on public administration practice.III. Public Administration in Practice A. Governmental Operations: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Civil Service Implementation: Assess the impact that the implementation of civil service had on the effectiveness of public service in the federal government. 2. Local Governmental Operations: Illustrate how public administration has manifested itself in local governmental operations. In other words, what impact has professional management had on local governmental operations? For example, you could consider how prevalent the mayor/manager form of government is. 3. Impact of Iron Triangle: Assess the impact of the â€œiron triangleâ€ on public policy and program administration at the state and federal levels of government. In other words, how does the bureaucracy counterbalance the direct relationship between special interests and the legislature? B. Differences Between Public Administration and Private Sector Management: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Organizational Differences: Contrast the impact of political boundaries in governmental operations versus the private sector. For example, you could consider how political boundaries impact program and operational efficiencies. Provide specific examples to support your response. 2. Legal Differences: Analyze mandates, legal and nonlegal, related to the challenge you selected. How do they impact the operations of state and local governments? How do these mandates apply to private sector firms? Provide specific examples to support your response. 3. Cultural Differences: Illustrate the impacts politics can have on administrative appointments in the public and private sectors. In other words, what is the impact of political appointments on the culture of governmental agencies and private businesses? Provide specific examples to support your response. C. Roles of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Executive Branch: Outline the role of the executive branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected. 2. Legislative Branch: Outline the role of the legislative branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected. 3. Judicial Branch: What role does the court system play in arbitrating public policy disputes between the executive and legislative branches of government? Focus specifically on how the judicial branch has impacted the challenge you selected. D. Public Budgeting Techniques: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Zero-Based Budgeting: Assess the principle of zero-based budgeting for how it has impacted federal programs and their stakeholders. What are the pros and cons of this methodology? 2. Performance-Based Budgeting: Assess how performance-based budgeting applies to private sector budgeting practices in a public sector setting. What are the pros and cons of this methodology? Include the impact on public programs and their stakeholders in your response. 3. Emerging Budget Strategies: Describe emerging budget strategies being utilized by public agencies to address the difficult fiscal environment facing local governments. In other words, what contemporary public budgeting techniques are effective? E. Governmental Communication Strategies: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Impact of Social Media: Assess the effectiveness of social media on governmental operations at the federal, state, or local governmental level. Consider questions such as these: What impact has social media had in enhancing public outreach? How has social media been used to develop a sense of community? 2. Impact of Other Media Types: Assess how various other media types can enhance public outreach and impact a citizenâ€™s sense of community. 3. Communication Strategies: How has the proliferation of information outlets impacted the communication strategies utilized by government officials? Guidelines for Submission: Your white paper should be 15â€“20 pages in length and should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. You should use APA guidelines for your cover page, in-text citations, and reference list.