Discussion Questions: Describe the components that contribute to port security planning. Why are they important and what aspects of security planning are considered in port facility operations? Discuss the significance and purpose of the Secure Freight Initiative?Articles for weekly assignment:Security challenges in United States sea ports: an overview: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276407591…Secure Freight Initiative: https://www.dhs.gov/secure-freight-initiativePort Risk Management in Container Terminals: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/…Managing port-related supply chain disruptions: A conceptual paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/…Instructions: Fully utilize the materials that have been provided to you in order to support your response. Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to at least two other students. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. You may challenge, support or supplement another student’s answer using the terms, concepts and theories from the required readings. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process at this academic level.Forum posts are graded on timeliness, relevance, knowledge of the weekly readings, and the quality of original ideas. Sources utilized to support answers are to be cited in accordance with the APA writing style by providing a general parenthetical citation (reference the author, year and page number) within your post, as well as an adjoining reference list. Refer to grading rubric for additional details concerning grading criteria.Student #1 RoderickDescribe the components that contribute to port security planning. Why are they important and what aspects of security planning are considered in port facility operations? Just like banks, hotels, or any other place that requires security, planning and thought processes must go into the specific security and safety of those locations. Ports are no different, however, when planning on how to secure them, a different approach must be taken because of the associated risks involved. Ports requires different types of security that must be adaptive and up to date, and most importantly, always provide security to all personnel, equipment, consumer goods, and the environment.On November 25, 2002, the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA) was signed into law. The law basically established the maritime security system requiring federal agencies, US vessels, and port facilities to conduct vulnerability assessments and to develop security and incident response plans to better identify and deter threats (Leonard et al., 2015). In order to establish an effective port security plan, three fundamental components must be taken into consideration. Those components are design and architecture, integration and cooperation, and minimizing the fortress mentality (Christopher, 2015). All three of these aspects are vital to a secure port.First, the design and architecture stage ensures that the port has all of the right security equipment needed to handle the daily operations of unloading and loading imported and exported equipment. Secondly, integration and collaboration, which I think might be the most important stage, allows for all parties involved in the port operations to be involved. That might include stakeholders, operations personnel, managers, and even vessel companies. Lastly, minimizing a fortress mentality. Although you want to your port to be safe and impenetrable as possible, you don’t want to create a prison environment. Port personnel must know how to react to any situation that involves the overall safety of goods, personnel, and equipment. The port security team and or managers must be able to correctly identify a potential incident and respond accordingly by alerting the right officials.Discuss the significance and purpose of the Secure Freight Initiative?The Secure Freight Initiative (SCI) was created to establish a partnership with other countries in order to safe guard ports throughout the world. It started by deploying a combination of existing technology and proven nuclear detection devices to six foreign ports which began in 2007. This entailed scanning containers for radiation and information risk factors before departing for the United States. In the event that something was detected, both homeland security personnel and host country officials would simultaneously receive an alert. On the flipside, data gathered for containers headed for the US from foreign ports participating in the SCI would be transmitted to the US Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) officer operating in overseas port locations.The SCI also builds upon a risk-based approach to securing the global supply chain by leveraging other programs like the National Nuclear Security Administration Megaports Initiative, Container Security Initiative, and the Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C–TPAT). Though costly, the SCI is vital to ensuring the consistent flow of cargo, which saves lots of time and prevents customs and inspection personnel from having to inspect each single container separately.RodChristopher, K. (2015). Port Security Management, Second Edition. New York: CRC Press.J. Leonard, Timothy & Gallo, Philip & Véronneau, Simon. (2015). Security challenges in United States sea ports: an overview. Journal of Transportation Security. 8. 10.1007/s12198-015-0155-9.Student #2 LoriDiscussion Questions: Describe the components that contribute to port security planning. Why are they important and what aspects of security planning are considered in port facility operations? Even though we believe that maximizing security efforts would mitigate terrorist threats and activity, that is not always the case. By maximizing efforts of security, we would hinder the economy and cause negative impacts gains to our economies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) must utilize what resources are currently in place because it would be difficult to fund additional resources (J. Leonard, Timothy & Gallo, Philip & Véronneau, Simon, p.45. 2015). There are other components that can contribute to port security planning efforts. Some of the components that I found to be critical to the planning stages besides additional funding are the port’s location, infrastructure, and key stakeholders. A port’s location can be one of the more critical pieces of the planning stages. Why? Knowing the location and the security threats and vulnerabilities of the port’s location, better planning for security measures can be implemented or a different location can be determined. Rather than being reactive to threats, analyzing terrorist activity will better equip security measures to be proactive to have measures in place therefore, mitigating the possibilities of economic loss. Another component of security planning is the port’s infrastructure. Infrastructure set-up can essentially limit opportunities for criminal activities. While infrastructure and the layout of the port is critical to operations, it is also critical to those that oversee the security of the port. The design of the port needs to be one that employees are familiar with and able to conduct efficient but safe daily operations. This not only ensures the safety of port business but also could aid with identifying unusual activity if present. Lastly, I believe that key stakeholders are the overall decision factor whether port security planning efforts are successful in deterring, mitigating, or detecting criminal activity. Lack of training is one of the most common deficiencies in any security organization (U.S Department of Transportation. Pg. 6. 1997). Selected personnel need to have the appropriate training in order to implement the plan in place. If there is not training plan in place for the key stakeholders to effectively run port security operations, the port security and its operations are vulnerable to threats through the weaknesses of those that run it. All of these variables are key in making port operations successful however, facility operations are not limited to just these components. There are others that could also contribute.Discuss the significance and purpose of the Secure Freight Initiative? The significance and purpose of the Secure Freight Initiative was implemented to prevent a weapons of mass destruction attack on our homeland. The Secure Freight Initiative will increase cargo inspections utilizing advanced technology. This initiative was implemented in 2006 with collaboration efforts from the Department of Homeland Security and Energy. The initial phase of Secure Freight involved the deployment of a combination of existing technology and proven nuclear detection devices to six foreign ports. Prior to containers leaving these foreign ports and heading to the U.S., they are scanned for radiation or information risk factors (American City and Country, 2006). I find this initiative to be a highly effective initiative and its just smart business. This alleviates the vulnerabilities and risks we are willing to take for the sake of economic growth. I don’t see it as hindering but aiding with it. If we allow WMDs to get to the targeted destination, we have already lost and could possibly suffer catastrophic losses.ReferencesAmerican City and Country. (2006, December 1). Securing Freight. Retrieved from https://www.americancityandcounty.com/2006/12/01/s…J. Leonard, Timothy & Gallo, Philip & Véronneau, Simon. (2015). Security challenges in United States sea ports: an overview. Journal of Transportation Security. 8. 10.1007/s12198-015-0155-9.U.S Department of Transportation. (1997). PORT SECURITY: A National Planning Guide.
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